CBSE Class 12 Geography

CBSE Class 12 Geography
Sample Paper 01 (2020-21)

Maximum Marks: 70
Time Allowed: 3 hours

General Instructions:

  1. Question paper is divided into 3 Sections – A, B and C.
  2. In Section A, question numbers 1 to15 are Objective type Multiple choice questions carrying 1 mark each. Attempt any 14 questions. Write the correct answer only in your answer sheets.
  3. In Section B, Question numbers 16 and 17 are Short Source Based and Graph Based questions respectively carrying 3 marks each. Answer any three questions out of 4. Each of these sub-questions carry 1 mark .
  4. In Section C, Question numbers 18 to 22 are short answer questions carrying 3 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 60-80 words.
  5. In Section C, Question numbers 23 to 27 are long answer questions carrying 5 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 120-150 words.
  6. Question numbers 28 and 29 are related to location and labeling and Identification of geographical features on maps respectively, carrying 5 marks each.
  7. Outline map of India and World provided to you must be attached with your answer book.
  8. Use of template or stencils for drawing outline maps is allowed.

  2. Fill in the blanks:
    Population composition is also called ________ structure.
  3. Which of the following is not a subject matter of Human Geography?
    1. Economic Geography
    2. Political Geography
    3. Physical Geography
    4. Urban Geography
  4. Which one of the following is India’s rank in terms of Human Development Index among the countries of the world in 2016?
    1. 128
    2. 134
    3. 126
    4. 131
  5. Which one of the following is not a push factor?
    1. Water shortage
    2. Unemployment
    3. Epidemics
    4. Medical/educational facilities
  6. The highest proportion of the total water used in the country is in which one of the following sectors?
    1. None of these
    2. Agriculture
    3. Industries
    4. Domestic use
  7. Which of the following is not included in factors affecting the distribution of population?
    1. Political stability
    2. Social customs and rituals
    3. Government policies
    4. Availability of water
  8. Fill in the blanks:The first stage of the demographic transition model shows high mortality and ________.
  9. Higher level of income:
    1. the higher is the level of human development
    2. None of these
    3. the lower is the level of human development
    4. the stagnant is the level of human development
  10. The term which is used to describe factors that attract people to a country, region, religion, organization, etc is known as:
    1. Pull factor
    2. Immigration
    3. None of these
    4. Migration
  11. Raka Mines, famous for its uranium, is located in
    1. Jharkhand
    2. None of these
    3. Orissa
    4. Madhya Pradesh
  12. Which state in India has the lowest literacy rate (2001) census?
    1. Bihar
    2. Madhya Pradesh
    3. Uttar Pradesh
    4. Rajasthan
  13. Which one of the following sectors provides most of the employment in Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata?
    1. Service
    2. Quaternary
    3. Secondary
    4. Primary
  14. Which of the following is not included in the four pillars of human development?
    1. Discrimination
    2. Empowerment
    3. Productivity
    4. Equity
  15. What is the value of the gross domestic product in India?
    1. Rs. 30000 billion
    2. Rs. 25000 billion
    3. Rs. 10000 billion
    4. Rs. 3200 billion
  16. Income Approach is:
    1. one of the oldest approaches to human development
    2. one of the recent approaches to human development
    3. None of these
    4. one of the latest approaches to human development
  18. Read the Case Study given below and answer the questions that follow:
    Migration is a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space. People tend to move from a place of low opportunity and low safety to a place of higher opportunity and better safety. This, in turn, creates both benefits and problems for the areas, people migrate from and migrate to.
    Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country. Rural-urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out-migration from the rural area have an adverse effect on the rural demographic structure. However, high out-migration from Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Eastern Maharashtra have brought serious imbalances in age and sex composition in these states. Similar imbalances are also brought in the recipients’ states.
    Answer any three questions:

    1. What leads to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space?
      1. Migration
      2. Birth rate
      3. Death rate
      4. Population density
    2. What is the impact of Age and skill selective out-migration?
      1. Create imbalance in migration
      2. Create an imbalance in the demographic structure of rural areas
      3. Create hurdle in economic progress
      4. None of these
    3. How high out-migration impact on the demographic structure of Uttarakhand?
      1. Imbalances in age and sex composition
      2. Imbalances growth rate
      3. Reduce fertility rate
      4. Reduce the death rate
    4. What are the positive demographic consequences of migration?
      1. Redistribution of the population within a country
      2. Imbalance in the age of sex composition
      3. Imbalance in demographic structure
      4. None of these
  19. Study the given graph carefully and answer the following questions:

    Fig: Most Populous Countries
    Answer any three questions:

    1. Why Asian countries are so populated?
      1. Abundant availability of resources
      2. Lower levels of immigration
      3. low fertility rate
      4. Extreme climate
    2. Why in the Mediterranean region population is high?
      1. Extreme climate
      2. Pleasant climate
      3. Rugged topography
      4. Drought prone area
    3. Why India has a high density of population as compared to Russia?
      1. Low-level land
      2. Technological advancement
      3. Economically developed
      4. High literacy rate
    4. Where is the majority of the world’s population located?
      1. Europe
      2. Africa
      3. North America
      4. Asia
  21. What is watershed management? Do you think it can play an important role in sustainable development?ORWhy there is a need to conserve water resources?
  22. Differentiate between a main worker and a marginal worker. Mention the main occupational categories found in India.
  23. Define ‘Human geography’. Give four examples of elements of material culture created by humans, using the resources provided by nature.
  24. Why do we get to see a digital divide all over the world?OREvaluate the importance of quaternary activities.
  25. Which of the four categories of occupation working population of a country is put ?
  26. Can one imagine the presence of only one-function town? Why do the cities become multi-functional?
  27. Describe the physical environment of Bharmaur regions.ORWhat is the positive and negative influence of Indira Gandhi Canal Irrigation on the ecology, economy and society of Rajasthan?
  28. Describe the main features of Pastoral nomadism and the areas associated with it.ORClassify mining methods on the basis of mode of occurrence and the nature of the ore, into two categories. How are they different from each other?
    Explain with examples.
  29. Discuss any five patterns of rural settlements on the basis of forms or shapes.
  30. Explain any three social and economic values which encourage us to use more and more nonconventional sources of energy.
  32. On the outline of the Indian map mark and indicate the following features.
    1. One state with a lowest level population density
    2. Largest Rice producing state
    3. Copper-mines in Hazaribagh
    4. International airport Guwahati
    5. Highest out-migrating state in India
  33. On the given political map of the world, the following five features are shown. Identify these features with the help of the given key and write them on the blanks marked i, ii, iii, iv and v.
    1. A major airport
    2. Mixed farming
    3. Largest country
    4. The great lakes region of America
    5. A megacity

CBSE Class 12 Geography
Sample Paper 01 (2020-21)


  2. Demographic
  3. (c) Physical Geography
    Explanation: Physical Geography
  4. (d) 131
    Explanation: In 2016, India’s HDI value of 0.624 put it at 131 ranks. India has been placed among the countries with medium human development index.
  5. (d) Medical/educational facilities
    Explanation: Medical/educational facilities
  6. (b) Agriculture
    Explanation: Agriculture
  7. (d) Availability of water
    Explanation: Availability of water
  8. high fertility
  9. (a) the higher is the level of human development
    Explanation: Human development is seen as being linked to income. The idea is that the level of income reflects the level of freedom an individual enjoys.
  10. (a) Pull factor
    Explanation: Pull factors are also known as place utility, which is the desirability of a place that attracts people. Better economic opportunities, more jobs, and the promise of a better life often pull people into new locations.
  11. (a) Jharkhand
    Explanation: Rakha Mines are copper mines situated near Ghatshala in Jharkhand state of India. The first industrial copper mining started at Rakha Mines by a British firm in 1900. After independence the mines were nationalized and are presently being run by a Government of India undertaking, Hindustan Copper Limited which was formed in 1967.
  12. (a) Bihar
    Explanation: According to 2001 census the literacy rate in the state of Bihar was 47.53%. Out of which, the male literacy rate is 60.32% and women literacy rate is 33.57%.
  13. (a) Service
    Explanation: Service
  14. (a) Discrimination
    Explanation: Discrimination
  15. (d) Rs. 3200 billion
    Explanation: Rs. 3200 billion
  16. (a) one of the oldest approaches to human development
    Explanation: Human development is seen as being linked to income. The idea is that the level of income reflects the level of freedom an individual enjoys. Higher the level of income, the higher is the level of human development.
    1. (a) Migration
    2. (b) Create an imbalance in the demographic structure of rural areas
    3. (a) Imbalances in age and sex composition
    4. (a) Redistribution of the population within a country
    1. (a) Abundant availability of resources
    2. (b) Pleasant climate
    3. (a) Low-level land
    4. (d) Asia
  19. Watershed management refers to efficient management and conservation of surface and groundwater resources. It is correct that it will play an important role in sustainable development.
    1. It involves the prevention of run-off and storage and recharge of groundwater.
    2. Watershed management includes conservation and judicious use of all resources.
    3. It aims at bringing about a balance between natural resources on the one hand and society.
    4. Watershed development projects in some areas have been successful in the rejuvenation environment and economy.


    Conservation of water resources is essential in India due to following reasons:

    1. To safeguard ourselves from health hazards as the quality of water is badly affected by discharge of urban wastes, industrial effluents, pesticides and fertilisers.
    2. To ensure food security to the people.
    3. Continuation of human activities and prevention of degradation of environment.
    4. To control over-exploitation and mis-management of water resources leading to depletion of water and ecological crisis affecting the life of millions of people.
  20. The main worker is a person who works for at least 183 days in a year, on the other hand, a marginal worker works for less than 183 days in a year.
    The 2011 Census has divided the working population of India into four major categories:

    1. Cultivators: The people who possess agricultural land and are engaged with cultivation activity.
    2. Agricultural Labourers: People who are engaged in farm-based activities/ cultivation to earn wages.
    3. Household Industrial Workers: People engaged with cottage industries, generally as house entity.
    4. Other Workers: Workers in non-household industries/ trade/ commerce/ construction repair and other services.
  21. Human geography studies the inter-relationship between the physical environment and the socio-cultural environment created by human beings through mutual interaction with each other. It attempts to explain the relationship between all elements of human life and space they occur over.
    The element of the physical environment are landforms, soils, climate, water, natural vegetation, rivers, flora and fauna, etc.
    Example of elements of material culture created by humans, after using the resources provided by nature are as follows:

    1. Furniture from tree wood.
    2. Machines using iron ore.
    3. Houses using stone and soil.
    4. Clothes from cotton.
  22. Opportunities emerging from the Information and Communication Technology based development is unevenly distributed across the globe. There are wide ranging economic, political and social differences among countries. How quickly countries can provide ICT access and benefits to its citizens is the deciding factor. While developed countries in general have surged forward, the developing countries have lagged behind and this is known as the digital divide. Similarly digital divides exist within countries. For example, in a large country like India or Russia, it is inevitable that certain areas like metropolitan centres possess better connectivity and access to the digital world versus peripheral rural areas.OR
    1. Quaternary activities involve the collection, production, and dissemination of information or even the production of information.
    2. Quaternary activities centre around research, development and may be seen as an advanced form of services involving specialised knowledge, technical skills, and administrative competence.
  23. The four major groups of occupation are:
    1. Primary activities: It includes hunting, agriculture, forestry and fishing.
    2. Secondary activities: It includes manufacturing and power.
    3. Tertiary activities: It includes transport, communication and other services.
    4. Quaternary activities: It includes more intellectual occupations, whose task is to think, research and developed ideas.
      At present in India we have only three occupational structures.
  24. Towns and cities are generally classified on the basis of the functions they perform. Even specialized cities, as they grow into metropolises become a multi-functional wherein industry, business administration, transport, etc. become important. The functions get so intertwined that the city can not be categorized in a particular functional class. Even if a town is a garrison town, basic trade activities must be carried out to provide the residents with the articles of day to day need, food items, etc. To support the dominant activity of the town, the ancillary activities start emerging
    Mumbai is a transport town due to presence of port but it is also the hub of international trade in India, hence is a trade town. Therefore the presence of a dominant of a single function also attracts people to the town. which in turn creates conditions conducive for the development of other functions hence, towns become multi-functional. The functions performed in a town are extremely dynamic, new functions keep on adding and old functions getting linked with each other, Therefore, in modern economies, no town can be a single functioned town.
    1. Location and Area. This region lies between 32° 11′ N and 32°41′ N latitudes and 76° 22′ E and 76° 53′ E longitudes and is spread over an area of about 1,818 sq. km.
    2. Relief. The region mostly lies between 1,500 m to 3,700 m above the mean sea level. This region popularly known as the homeland of Gaddis is surrounded by lofty mountains on all sides. It has Pir Panjal in the north and Dhaula Dhar in the south. In the east, the extension of Dhaula Dhar converges with Pir Panjal near Rohtang Pass.
    3. River. The river Ravi and its tributaries the Budhil and the Tundahen. These rivers divide the region into four physiographic divisions called Holi, Khani, Kugti and Tundah areas.
    4. Climate. Bharmaur experiences freezing weather conditions and snowfall in winter. Its mean monthly temperature in January remains 4°C and on July 26°C.


    The introduction of Indira Gandhi Canal irrigation in this dry land of Rajasthan has transformed its ecology, economy, and society.
    Positive influences:

    1. The availability of soil moisture and various afforestation and pasture development programs have resulted in greening the land.
    2. The spread of canal irrigation has led to an increase in cultivated area and intensity of cropping.
    3. This has also helped in reducing wind erosion and siltation of canal systems.
    4. The traditional crops are sown in the area, gram, bajra, jowar have been replaced by wheat, cotton, groundnut& rice.

    Negative influences:

    1. The intensive irrigation and excessive use of water have led to the emergence of environmental problems of waterlogging and soil salinity.
    2. In the long run, it hampers the sustainability of agriculture.
  25. Pastoral nomadism: It is a primitive subsistence activity depending on animals. Since these people do not live a settled life, they are called nomads. They move from one place to another along with their livestock, depending on the amount and quality of pastures and water. Each nomadic community occupies a well-defined territory. In mountain regions, such as Himalayas, Gujjars, Bakarwals, Gaddis and Bhotiyas migrate from plains to the mountains in summers and to the plains from the high altitude pastures in winters. Similarly, in the tundra regions, the nomadic herders move from south to north in summers and from north to south in winters. Areas: Pastoral nomadism is associated with three important regions:
    1. The core region extends from the Atlantic shores of North Africa eastwards across the Arabian peninsula into Mongolia and Central China.
    2. The second region extends over the tundra region of Eurasia.
    3. In the southern hemisphere, there are small areas in South-west Africa and on the island of Madagascar.


    Depending on the mode of occurrence and the nature of the ore, mining is of two types:

    1. Surface Mining: Surface mining is a form of mining in which the soil and the rock covering the mineral deposits are removed.
    2. Underground Mining: In underground mining, the overlying rock is left behind, and the required mineral deposits are removed through shafts or tunnels.


    1. Surface mining is known as open-cast mining whereas, underground mining is known as shaft method.
    2. Surface mining is the cheapest way of mining, contrary to underground mining which is expensive.
    3. The former occurs close to the surface whereas, in the latter method vertical shafts have to be sunk, from where underground galleries radiate to reach the minerals.
    4. Overhead cost for equipment is relatively low in open-cast, but for underground mining the equipment such as lifts, drills, etc. used are expensive.
    5. Open-cast mining is less risky than underground mining which has more possibility of people becoming a victim of poisonous gases, fire, floods, etc.
  26. On the basis of forms or shapes of the settlements:
    1. Rectangular Pattern: Over 50 per cent of the world population lives in rural settlements, and most of the people inhabit the settlements of rectangular pattern. Rectan­gular settlements mainly develop in productive alluvial plains and wide intermontane valleys. The lanes in the rectangular settlements are almost straight, meeting each other at right angles. The rural settlements of the Sutlej-Ganga plains, especially those which developed on the cross-roads, fall in this category. The well-planned settlements of Germany, Russia, Central Asian Republics, China, North and South Korea, Vietnam, Malaysia, Israel and France also fall under this category.
    2. Linear pattern: It is the other most important design of settlements. In the linear settlements, houses are arranged along either side of a road, railway line, river or canal. Such settlements also evolve along the edge of a valley, especially in the mountainous areas, above flood level or along the coast. The development of linear settlements in the hilly areas is largely controlled by terrain and topography. Along the river banks and the sea shore, the flood and water level influence linear settlements. Such settle­ments are numerous in the Middle Himalayas, Alps, Rockies, Andese, Pyrenees, Pamir, Hindukush, Zagros, and Elburz Siwaliks and along the roads in the plains of Ganga-Yamuna.
    3. Circular and Semi-Circular Pattern: The fishermen and salt producers develop their settlements along the sea coasts and salt lakes, respectively. Since the people prefer to stay near the water, they construct their houses along the coasts. Such settlements acquire the circular or semi-circular shapes. In the vicinity of crater lakes and on the levees of ox-bow lakes, such settlements are found. The main occupation of the people of circular settlements is to err their livelihood from the water either by catching fish, water-nuts, grasses, or by providing services to the recreates, picnic goers and aesthetic beauty lovers.
    4. Star-Like Pattern: The star-like settlements develop on the sites and places where several metalled or unhealed roads converge. In the star-shaped settlements, houses spread out along the sides of roads in all direction. This pattern is common to both villages and towns, and is caused mostly by new devel­opment, spreading out along the major roads. This type of settlements is the character­istic of the countryside’s of North-West Europe, plains of Yangtzekiang, Punjab province of Pakistan and the Sutlej-Yamuna plains.
    5. T-shaped, Y-shaped, Cross-shaped or cruciform settlements: T-shaped settlements develop at tri-junctions of the roads. Y-shaped settlements develop as the places where two roads converge on the third one and houses are built along these roads. Cruciform settlements develop on the cross-roads and houses extend in all the four directions.
    1. In India, non-conventional energy sources consist of those energy sources that are infinite, natural, and restorable. For example, tidal energy, solar energy, and wind energy are non-conventional sources of energy.
    2. Wind energy is a popular form of non-conventional energy. It is utilized for drawing water, which is an essential requirement in irrigating agricultural lands in rural areas. In addition, it can be utilized for electricity generation.
    3. Solar energy is one of the most important non-conventional sources of energy that are utilized in India. The solar cookers are quite economical and they have been a remarkable invention.
    4. Biomass is an important source of energy which represents approximately 33% of the overall volume of fuel used in the country. The principle segments of the biomass program are the generation and usage of biomass. The smoke-free ambience, improved healthcare and better quality of life and education are some of the salient benefits of biomass.
    1. Tokyo
    2. China
    3. Russia
    4. Pennsylvania
    5. Saopaulo