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CBSE Class 12 Physics
Sample Paper 01 (202021)
Maximum Marks: 70
Time Allowed: 3 hours
General Instructions:
 All questions are compulsory. There are 33 questions in all.
 This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.
 Section A contains ten very short answer questions and four assertion reasoning MCQs of 1 mark each, Section B has two case based questions of 4 marks each, Section C contains nine short answer questions of 2 marks each, Section D contains five short answer questions of 3 marks each and Section E contains three long answer questions of 5 marks each.
 There is no overall choice. However internal choice is provided. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such questions.
 Section A
 Name the physical quantity, whose SI unit is volt metre^{1}.
 State the applications of Ultraviolet radiations.ORWhich part of the electromagnetic spectrum is used in RADAR? Give its frequency range.
 What is wavefront and Huygens’ principle?
 What is the direction of the force acting on a charged particle q, moving with a velocity v⃗ v→ in a uniform magnetic field B⃗ B→?ORWhy do the two parallel conductors carrying current exert force on each other?
 Why do lenses of large aperture suffer from spherical aberration?
 Find the maximum velocity of photoelectrons emitted by radiation of frequency 3 ×× 10^{15 }Hz from a photoelectric surface having a work function 4.0 eV.
 Express one atomic mass unit (1 a.m.u.) in kilogram.ORHeavy water is often used as a modulator in thermal nuclear reactors. Give reason.
 In the following circuits, which of the diodes is forwardbiased and which is reversebiased and why?
 What is meant by the nonmagnetic material?
 What are photodiodes?
 Assertion (A): A current flows in a conductor only when there is an electric field within the conductor.
Reason (R): The drift velocity of electrons in the presence of electric field decreases. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
 Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
 A is true but R is false
 A is false and R is also false
 Assertion (A): Positive charge always moves from a higher potential point to a lower potential point.
Reason (R): Electric potential is a vector quantity. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
 Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
 A is true but R is false
 A is false and R is also false
 Assertion (A): Young’s double slit experiment can be performed using a source of white light.
Reason (R): The wavelength of red light is less than the wavelength of other colours in white light. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
 Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
 A is true but R is false
 A is false and R is also false
 Assertion (A): In a hydrogen atom, there is only one electron, but its emission spectrum shows many lines.
Reason (R): In a given sample of hydrogen, there are many atoms, each containing one electron; hence many electrons in different atoms may be in different orbits, so many transitions from higher to lower orbits are possible. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
 Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
 A is true but R is false
 A is false and R is also false
 Section B
 Read the source given below and answer any four out of the following questions:
A charge is a property associated with the matter due to which it experiences and produces an electric and magnetic field. Charges are scalar in nature and they add up like real numbers. Also, the total charge of an isolated system is always conserved. When the objects rub against each other charges acquired by them must be equal and opposite.
 The cause of charging is:
 the actual transfer of protons
 the actual transfer of electrons
 the actual transfer of neutrons
 none of the above
 Pick the correct statement.
 The glass rod gives protons to silk when they are rubbed against each other.
 The glass rod gives electrons to silk when they are rubbed against each other.
 The glass rod gains protons from silk when they are rubbed against each other.
 The glass rod gains electrons when they are rubbed against each other.
 If two electrons are each 1.5×10−10m1.5×10−10m from a proton, as shown in Figure, magnitude of the net electric force they will exert on the proton is
 1.97×10−8N1.97×10−8N
 2.73×10−8N2.73×10−8N
 3.83×10−8N3.83×10−8N
 4.63×10−8N4.63×10−8N
 A charge is a property associated with the matter due to which it produces and experiences :
 electric effects only
 magnetic effects only
 both electric and magnetic effects
 none of these
 The cause of quantization of electric charges is:
 transfer of an integral number of neutrons
 transfer of an integral number of protons
 transfer of an integral number of electrons
 none of the above
 The cause of charging is:
 Read the source given below and answer any four out of the following questions:
The potentiometer consists of a long resistive wire(L) and a battery of known EMF, ‘V’ whose voltage is known as driver cell voltage. Assume a primary circuit arrangement by connecting the two ends of L to the battery terminals. One end of the primary circuit is connected to the cell whose EMF ‘E’ is to be measured and the other end is connected to galvanometer G. This circuit is assumed to be a secondary circuit.
 How can we increase the sensitivity of a potentiometer?
 Increasing the potential gradient
 Decreasing the potential gradient
 Decreasing the length of potentiometer wire
 Increasing resistance put in parallel
 If l_{1} and l_{2} are the balancing lengths of the potentiometer wire for the cells of EMFs ε1ε1 and ε2ε2, then
 ε1ε1+ ε2ε2 = l_{1} + l_{2}
 ε1ε2=l1l2ε1ε2=l1l2
 ε1ε1ε2ε2 = l_{1}l_{2}
 None of these
 Example of a potentiometer is
 Mobile
 Modem
 Joystick
 All of these
 The emf of a cell is always greater than its terminal voltage. Why?
 Because there is some potential drop across the cell due to its small internal resistance
 Because there is some potential drop across the cell due to its large internal resistance
 Because there is some potential drop across the cell due to its low current
 Because there is some potential drop across the cell due to its high current
 Why is a ten wire potentiometer more sensitive than a fourwire one?
 Small potential gradient
 Large potential gradient
 Large length
 None of these
 How can we increase the sensitivity of a potentiometer?
 Section C
 The energy of the electron, in the ground state of hydrogen, is – 13.6 eV. Calculate the energy of the photon that would be emitted, if the electron were to make a transition corresponding to the emission of the first line of the (i) Lyman series (ii) Balmer series of the hydrogen spectrum.
 An equiconvex lens of focal length f is cut into two identical plane convex lenses. How will the power of each part be related to the focal length of the original lens? A double convex lens of +5D is made of glass of refractive index 1.55 with both faces of equal radii of curvature. Find the value of its radius of curvature.ORA diverging lens of focal length F is cut into two identical parts, each forming a Plano concave lens. What is the focal length of each part?
 Two pithballs each of mass 5 ×× 10^{4} kg are suspended from the same point by silk threads 0.2 m long. Equal charges are given to the balls, which separate, until the threads enclose an angle of 30^{o}. Calculate the charge on each pithball.ORAn electric dipole is placed in a uniform electric field E with its dipole moment p parallel to the field. Find
 the work done in turning the dipole till its dipole moment points in the direction opposite to E.
 the orientation of the dipole for which the torque acting on it becomes maximum.
 Using the relevant Bohr’s postulates, derive the expressions for the
 speed of the electron in the nth orbit
 radius of the nth orbit of the electron in hydrogen atom.
 The electric current in a wire in the direction from B to A is increasing. What is the direction of induced current in the metallic loop kept above the wire as shown in a given figure?
 Define electron volt and atomic mass unit. Calculate the energy in joule equivalent to the mass of one proton.
 Explain, why an air bubble inside a transparent liquid behaves like a diverging lens.
 A magnetic needle free to rotate in a vertical plane parallel to the magnetic meridian has its North tip down at 60° with the horizontal. The horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field at the place is known to be 0.4 G. Determine the magnitude of the earth’s magnetic field at the place.ORAn aeroplane is flying horizontally from west to east with a velocity of 900 km/hour. Calculate the potential difference developed between the ends of its wings having a span of 20 m. The horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field is 5 ×× 10^{−4}T and the angle of dip is 30^{o}.
 A giant telescope in an observatory has an objective of focal length 19 m and an eyepiece of focal length 1.0 cm. In normal adjustment, the telescope is used to view the moon. What is the diameter of the image of the moon formed by the objective? The diameter of the moon is 3.5 ×106×106 m and the radius of the lunar orbit round the earth is 3.8 ×108×108 m.
 Section D
 An inductor L of inductance X_{L} is connected in series with a bulb and an ac source. How would brightness of the bulb change when
 the number of turns in the inductor is reduced
 an iron rod is inserted in the inductor and
 a capacitor of reactance X_{C} = X_{L} is inserted in series in the circuit.
Justify your answer in each case.

 Can the interference pattern be produced by two independent monochromatic sources of light? Explain.
 The intensity at the central maximum (O) in a Young’s double slit experimental setup shown in the figure is I_{O}. If the distance OP equals onethird of the fringe width of the pattern, show that the intensity at point P, would equal Io4Io4.
 In Young’s double slit experiment, the slits are separated by 0·5 mm and screen is placed 1·0 m away from the slit. It is found that the 5^{th} bright fringe is at a distance of 4·13 mm from the 2^{nd} dark fringe. Find the wavelength of light used.
OR
Explain the following giving reasons:
 When monochromatic light is incident on a surface separating two media, then both reflected and refracted light have the same frequency as the incident frequency.
 When light travels from a rarer to a denser medium, then speed decreases. Does this decrease in speed imply a reduction in the energy carried by the wave?
 In the wave picture of light, the intensity of light is determined by the square of the amplitude of the wave. What determines the intensity in the photon picture of light?
 Find the ratio of the potential differences that must be applied across the parallel and series combination of two capacitors C_{1} and C_{2} with their capacitances in the ratio 1 : 2, so that the energy stored in these two cases becomes the same.OR
 Plot a graph comparing the variation of potential V and electric field E due to a point charge Q as a function of distance R from the point charge.
 Find the ratio of the potential differences that must be applied across the parallel and the series combination of two capacitors, C_{1} and C_{2} with their capacitances in the ratio 1 : 2, so that the energy stored in the two cases becomes the same.
 Sketch the graphs showing the variation of stopping potential with frequency of incident radiations for two photosensitive materials A and B having threshold frequencies ν0′>ν0ν0′>ν0 respectively:
 Which of the two metals, A or B has higher work function?
 What information do you get from the slope of the graphs?
 What does the value of intercept of graph ‘A’ on the potential axis represent?
 A straight wire of length L is bent into a semicircular loop. Use BiotSavart’s law to deduce an expression for the magnetic field at its centre due to the current I passing through it.
 Section E

 Why are Si and GaAs preferred materials for solar cells?
 Describe briefly with the help of a necessary circuit diagram, the working principle of a solar cell.
OR
 In the following diagram, is the junction diode forward biased or reverse biased?
 Draw the circuit diagram of a full wave rectifier and state how it works?
 An LC circuit contains a 20 mH inductor and a 50μF50μF capacitor with an initial charge of 10 mC. The resistance of the circuit is negligible. Let the instant the circuit is closed be t = 0.
 What is the total energy stored initially? Is it conserved during LC oscillations?
 What is the natural frequency of the circuit?
 At what time is the energy stored
 completely electrical (i.e. stored in the capacitor)?
 completely magnetic (i.e. stored in the inductor)?
 At what times is the total energy shared equally between the inductor and the capacitor?
 If a resistor is inserted in the circuit, how much energy is eventually dissipated as heat?
OR
 Determine the value of phase difference between the current and the voltage in the given series LCR circuit.
 Calculate the value of additional capacitor which may be joined suitably to the capacitor C that would make the power factor of the circuit unity.

 Describe briefly how a diffraction pattern is obtained on a screen due to a single narrow slit illuminated by a monochromatic source of light. Hence, obtain the conditions for the angular width of secondary maxima and secondary minima.
 Two wavelengths of sodium light of 590 nm and 596 nm are used in turn to study the diffraction taking place at a single slit of aperture 2×10−6m2×10−6m. The distance between the slit and the screen is 1.5m. Calculate the separation between the positions of first maxima of the diffraction pattern obtained in the two cases.
OR
In Young’s double slit experiment, deduce the condition for (a) constructive and (b) destructive interference at a point on the screen. Draw a graph showing a variation of intensity in the interference pattern against position x on the screen.
CBSE Class 12 Physics
Sample Paper 01 (202021)
Solution
 Section A
 Electric field intensity
 Ultraviolet radiations are used
 to preserve the food stuff,
 to sterilizing the surgical instruments.
OR
Microwaves are used in RADAR. The frequency range is 10^{10} to 10^{12} Hz.
 The locus of all the particles of the medium, which at any instant are vibrating in the same phase, is called the wavefront.
Huygens’ principle states that each point of the wavefront is the source of the secondary wavelets which spread out in all direction with the speed of a wave.  Since F→=q(v⃗ ×B→)F→=q(v→×B→), the force acts in the direction of v⃗ ×B→v→×B→ i.e. perpendicular to both v⃗ v→ and B⃗ B→ORThe current flows in a conductor due to the motion of electrons through it. When a current carrying conductor is placed inside a magnetic field, the electrons moving inside the conductor experience force due to the magnetic field in a direction perpendicular to the length of the conductor. As the electrons are confined to the conductor, the force on the electrons shows its effect as the force on the conductor.
 In case of a lens of large aperture, the behaviour of the paraxial and the marginal rays are markedly different from each other. The two types of rays come to focus at different points on the principal axis of the lens. However, in case of a lens of small aperture, all the rays of light come to focus at one point.
 12mv2max=hν−ϕ012mv2max=hν−ϕ0
=6.63×10−34×3×1015−4×1.6×10−19=6.63×10−34×3×1015−4×1.6×10−19
or v2max=2[19.89×10−19−6.4×10−19]9.1×10−31vmax2=2[19.89×10−19−6.4×10−19]9.1×10−31
=26.98×10−199.1×10−31=2.96×1012=26.98×10−199.1×10−31=2.96×1012
vmax=1.72×106ms−1vmax=1.72×106ms−1  1 a.m.u = 1.66 ×× 10^{27} kgORHeavy water is used as a moderator because its mass is nearest to that of a neutron and it has negligible chances for neutron absorption.
 The circuit shown in figure (a) can be redrawn as shown in figure.
As the psection is connected to negative terminal of the battery, the diode has been reverse biased.
By redrawing the circuit diagrams, it can be shown that diode in circuit shown in figure (b) is reverse biased and in the circuit shown in figure (c), the diode is forward biased.  Nonmagnetic materials are those materials, which are not affected by the magnetic field.
 The junction diodes made from light (or photo) sensitive semiconductor are called photodiodes. It conducts when light is incident on the junction of the diode.
 (c) A is true but R is false
Explanation: Current flows when there in P.D.
The presence of P.D implies the presence of an Electric field.
Drift velocity ∝∝ Electric field.  (c) A is true but R is false
Explanation: If two points P and Q in an electric field are separated by an infinitesimal distance ΔΔ x and have a potential difference ΔΔV between them, E = −ΔVΔx−ΔVΔx . Here, negative sign implies that E⃗ E→ has got a direction opposite to the potential gradient, i . e, in the direction of E⃗ E→, the potential decreases, i. e, positive charge always moves from a higher potential point to a lower potential point.  (d) A is false and R is also false
Explanation: A is false and R is also false  (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
Explanation: Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A  Section B

 (b) the actual transfer of electrons
 (b) The glass rod gives electrons to silk when they are rubbed against each other.
 (a) 1.97×10−8N1.97×10−8N
 (c) both electric and magnetic effects
 (c) transfer of an integral number of electrons

 (b) Decreasing the potential gradient
 (b) ε1ε2=l1l2ε1ε2=l1l2
 (c) Joystick
 (a) Because there is some potential drop across the cell due to its small internal resistance
 (a) Small potential gradient
 Section C
 Given: E_{1} = – 13.6 eV
Now,
En=−13.6n2eVEn=−13.6n2eV
For n = 2,
E2=−13.622eVE2=−13.622eV = 3.4 eV
For n = 3,
E3=−13.632eVE3=−13.632eV = – 1.5 eV For Lyman series, E = E_{2} – E_{1} = ( 3.4) ( 13.6) = 10.2 eV
 For Balmer series, E = E_{3} – E_{2} = ( 1.5) ( 3.4) = 1.9 eV
 The focal length of the original equiconvex lens is f. Let the focal length of each part after cutting be F.
Here, 1f=1F+1F⇒1f=2F⇒f=F2⇒F=2f1f=1F+1F⇒1f=2F⇒f=F2⇒F=2f
Power of each part will be given by
P=1F⇒P=12fP=1F⇒P=12f
From lens maker formula, we have
P=(μ−1)(1R1−1R2)P=(μ−1)(1R1−1R2)
where R_{1} and R_{2} are radius of curvatures of the lens
5=(1.55−1){1R−(1−R)}5=(1.55−1){1R−(1−R)}[as R_{1} = R and R_{2} = R]
or 5=0.55×2R5=0.55×2R
R=0.55×25R=0.55×25 = 0.22 m = 22 cm
So, radius of curvature of each side is 22 cm.ORFor single diverging lens,
1F=(μ−1)(1R1−1R2)1F=(μ−1)(1R1−1R2)
Let R_{1} = – R, R_{2} = R
∴∴ 1F=(μ−1)(1−R−1R)=−2(μ−1)R1F=(μ−1)(1−R−1R)=−2(μ−1)R
For each half (which is plano concave) as shown in figure:
R_{1} = R and R_{2} = ∞∞
∴∴ 1F1=1F2=(μ−1)1F1=1F2=(μ−1) (1−R−1∞)=−(μ−1)R=12F(1−R−1∞)=−(μ−1)R=12F
∴∴ F_{1} = F_{2} = 2 F
Here, AS = 0.2 m and θθ = 30∘230∘2 = 15^{o}
According to the triangle law of forces,
FOA=mgSO=TASFOA=mgSO=TAS
or F = mg ×× OASOOASO
or 14πε0⋅q×q(AB)214πε0⋅q×q(AB)2 = mg×OASOmg×OASO = mg tanθθ
Setting m = 5 ×× 10^{4} kg, g = 9.8 ms^{2} and
AB = 2 ×× OA = 2 ×× AS sinθθ, we get
q = 3.958 ×× 10^{8 }COR If a dipole is placed in an electric field, then in order to rotate it we have to do the work against electric field lines which can be found as:
Work done in rotating the dipole, W=∫θ2θ1τdθW=∫θ1θ2τdθ
If the dipole is turned from direction parallel to electric field to direction opposite to electric field, then angle θθ will change from 0 to ππ.  We know that, τ=pEsinθτ=pEsinθ
If θ=π/2θ=π/2 , then ττ is maximum
i.e. τ=pEsinπ2⇒τ=pEτ=pEsinπ2⇒τ=pE (maximum)
Maximum torque will be experienced by the dipole when its dipole moment is perpendicular to electric field lines.
 If a dipole is placed in an electric field, then in order to rotate it we have to do the work against electric field lines which can be found as:

 From Bohr’s first postulate,
mv2r=kZe2r2mv2r=kZe2r2
where k = 14πεo14πεo
Thus, r = kZe2mv2kZe2mv2
From Bohr’s postulate of angular momentum,
r = nh2πmvnh2πmv
∴∴ kZe2mv2=nh2πmvkZe2mv2=nh2πmv or v = 2πkZe2nh2πkZe2nh
This is the velocity of electron in Bohr’s stationary orbit.  Now, mvr = nh2πnh2π or v = nh2πmrnh2πmr
Also, mv2r=kZe2r2mv2r=kZe2r2
Putting the value of v, we get
mrn2h24π2m2r2mrn2h24π2m2r2 = kZe2r2kZe2r2 or r =n2h24π2mkZe2=n2h24π2mkZe2
This is the radii of Bohr’s stationary orbit.
 From Bohr’s first postulate,
 When the increasing current flows through the wire in the direction from point B to A, the increasing magnetic field is produced; which is directed perpendicular to the plane of the loop (or the plane of paper) and in inward direction. Due to this, induced e.m.f. is produced in the loop which opposes the magnetic field produced due to the current flowing through the wire i.e. induced current in the loop should flow in a direction so that it produces magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the loop and in outward direction. Maxwell’s cork screw rule tells that induced current in the loop will flow in anticlockwise direction.
 Electron volt: It is defined as the energy gained by an electron when accelerated through a potential difference of 1 volt.
Atomic mass unit: It is defined as onetwelfth the mass of one atom of carbon12.
The mass of a proton is 1.67 ×× 10^{27} kg. Therefore, the energy equivalent of this mass is,
E = mc^{2} = 1.67 ×× 10^{27} ×× (3 ×× 10^{8})^{2}
= 1.5 ×× 10^{10} J  An air bubble acts as a convex lens made of air and placed inside the liquid. Therefore, the air bubble acts as a lens, whose focal length is given by
1fbubble=(lμa−1)(1R1−1R2)1fbubble=(lμa−1)(1R1−1R2)
Here, lμa<1lμa<1 i.e. lμa−1lμa−1 is negative. Since the factor (1R1−1R2)(1R1−1R2) is positive, the value of f will be negative. Hence, the air bubble inside a transparent liquid behaves as a diverging lens.  Angle of dip, δ=60∘=π3δ=60∘=π3
Horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field is, B_{H} = 0.4 G = 0.4 ×× 10^{4} T
Magnetic field of earth (B) =?
Horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field,
BH=BcosδBH=Bcosδ
B=BHcosδB=BHcosδ
B=0.4 × 10−4 Tcos60∘B=0.4 × 10−4 Tcos60∘
B=0.4 × 10−4 T1/2B=0.4 × 10−4 T1/2
B=0.8 × 10−4 TB=0.8 × 10−4 T∴B=8 × 10−5 T∴B=8 × 10−5 TORLet the potential difference between the ends of the wings ‘e’ = B_{v}
Given Velocity, v = 900 km/hour = 250 m/s
Wing span length (l) = 20 m
Vertical component of Earth’s magnetic field is given as
B_{v} = B_{H} tan δδ = 5 ×× 10^{4} tan 30^{o}
Potential difference, E = B_{v}lv
= 5 ×× 10^{4} tan 30^{o} ×× 20 ×× 250
= 5×20×250×10−43√5×20×250×10−43
= 1.44 volt
So, 1.44 V potential difference is developed across the ends of the wings of aeroplane.  Since moon is situated very far, so its image is at the focal plane of objective lens.
So, angle subtended by diameter of moon is equal to angle subtended by the image, β=αβ=α
or tanβ=tanαtanβ=tanα
or dfo=Drdfo=Dr; where D is diameter of moon and r is the distance of moon from the earth.
∴d=D×for=3.5×106×193.8×108∴d=D×for=3.5×106×193.8×108 =17.5×10−2m=17.5cm=17.5×10−2m=17.5cm  Section D

 When the number of turns of the inductor is reduced, its reactance X_{L} decreases. The current in the circuit increases and hence the brightness of the bulb decreases.
 When an iron rod is inserted, it increases the inductive reactance, which in turn decreases the current and hence the brightness of the bulb.
 When X_{L} = X_{C}, the circuit i.e., the impedance becomes minimum and maximum current flows. This makes the bulb glow more.

 No. Sustained interference pattern cannot be obtained. Light waves emitted from a source undergoes abrupt phase changes in times of the order of 10^{10}s. So light from two independent sources will not have fixed phase relationship and will be incoherent.
 x = β3β3, path difference = λ3λ3
phase difference = 2π32π3
I = I_{o} cos^{2} ϕ2ϕ2
I = I_{o} cos^{2} (2π3×22π3×2) = I_{o} cos^{2} (π3π3)
I = I_{o} (1414) = Io4Io4  Distance of 5^{th} bright fringe from 2^{nd} dark fringe
x = 5λDd5λDd – 3λD2d3λD2d = 72λDd72λDd
λλ = 2xd7D2xd7D = 2×4.13×10−3×0.5×10−37×12×4.13×10−3×0.5×10−37×1
λλ = 0.59 ×× 10^{6} m = 5900 AoAo
OR
 Frequency is the characteristic of the sources while wavelength is the characteristic of the medium. When monochromatic light travels from one medium to another, its speed changes, so its wavelength changes but frequency remains same. Reflection and refraction arise through interaction of incident light with atomic constituents of matter which vibrate with the same frequency as that of the incident light. Hence frequency remains unchanged.
 Speed decreases due to decrease in wavelength of wave but energy carried by the light wave depends on the amplitude of the wave.
 In the photon picture of light, intensity of a light is determined by the number of photons incident per unit area.
For a given frequency, intensity of light in the photon picture is determined by
I= Energy of photons area × time =n×hvA×tI= Energy of photons area × time =n×hvA×t
 Total energy stored in series or parallel combination of capacitors is equal to the stored energy in the equivalent capacitor.
In parallel combination, total energy stored in both the capacitors
=12C1V21+12C2V21=12C1V12+12C2V12….. (i) (since C = C_{1} + C_{2} in parallel combination of two capacitors of capacitances C_{1} and C_{2})
In series combination, energy stored in the the equivalent capacitor = 12C1C2(C1+C2)V2212C1C2(C1+C2)V22 …(ii) (applying the formula of equivalent capacitance for series combination of the above two capacitors)
According to the question, energy in both the cases is same so,
(12C1+12C2)V21=C1C22(C1+C2)V22(12C1+12C2)V12=C1C22(C1+C2)V22
⇒V21V22=C1C2×22(C1+C2)(C1+C2)⇒V1V2=C1C2√C1+C2⇒V12V22=C1C2×22(C1+C2)(C1+C2)⇒V1V2=C1C2C1+C2
But, C1C2=12⇒C2=2C1C1C2=12⇒C2=2C1
So, V1V2=C1×2C1√C1+2C1=2√C13C1=2√3V1V2=C1×2C1C1+2C1=2C13C1=23OR The graph comparing the variation of potential V and electric field is shown below:
 Let C_{1} = C and C_{2} = 2C
Equivalent capacitance in parallel combination, C_{P} = 2C + C = 3C
and in series combination, Cs=2C×C2C+c=2C23C=2C3Cs=2C×C2C+c=2C23C=2C3
Let V_{P} and V_{s} are potential difference across the equivalent capacitance in parallel and series combination respectively, to have same potential energy.
i.e. U_{P }= U_{s}
∴12CpV2p=12CsV2s⇒VpVs=CsCp−−−√∴12CpVp2=12CsVs2⇒VpVs=CsCp
⇒VPVS=(2C/3)(3C)−−−−−√=29−−√⇒VPVS=(2C/3)(3C)=29
∴Vp:Vs=2–√:3∴Vp:Vs=2:3
This is the required ratio of the potential differences across the parallel and series combination of the capacitors.
 The graph comparing the variation of potential V and electric field is shown below:

 Since work function, ϕ=hνϕ=hν
∴ϕ0′=hν0′∴ϕ0′=hν0′
Metal ‘A’ has higher work function as ν0′>ν0ν0′>ν0  We know that,
K_{max} = hν−ϕohν−ϕo = eV_{o}
Dividing the whole equation by e, we get,
hνe−ϕoe=Vohνe−ϕoe=Vo
From the above equation, the slope of the graph is hehe (on comparing with the straight line equation). Thus, we see that the slope is independent of the nature of the photoelectric material.  Intercept of graph A on the potential axis = −ϕ0′e−ϕ0′e
In this way, the work function can be determined.
 Since work function, ϕ=hνϕ=hν
 A straight wire of length L carrying a current I is bent into semicircular loop of arc radius r. Consider the figure.
Considering a small element dl on circular current loop. The magnitude dB of magnetic field due to small current element dl is given by BiotSavart’s law:
dB=μ04πIdl×rr3dB=μ04πIdl×rr3
Now, dB due to the straight segments is zero as dl and r are parallel.
The magnetic field at the centre C of the loop for segments of semicircular arc is calculated below.
Length of wire = Circumference of semiequal circular wire
⇒L=πr⇒r=Lπ⇒L=πr⇒r=Lπ……. (i)
The magnetic field dB,
dB=μ04π⋅Idlsin90∘r2dB=μ04π⋅Idlsin90∘r2 [∵ Idl ⊥r,…θ=90∘][∵ Idl ⊥r,…θ=90∘]
dB=μ04π⋅Idlr2dB=μ04π⋅Idlr2
∴∴ Net magnetic field at C due to semicircular loop
B=∫ semicircle μ04πIdlr2B=∫ semicircle μ04πIdlr2⇒B=μ04πIr2∫ semicircle dl⇒B=μ04πIr2∫ semicircle dl
B=μ04π⋅Ir2LB=μ04π⋅Ir2L
Using (i), r=L/πr=L/π
B=μ04π⋅IL(L/π)2=μ04π×ILL2×π2⇒B=μ0Iπ4LB=μ04π⋅IL(L/π)2=μ04π×ILL2×π2⇒B=μ0Iπ4L
This is the required expression of the magnetic field. From right hand rule, direction of B is normal to the plane of the paper going into it.  Section E

 The energy for the maximum intensity of the solar radiation is nearly 1 5 eV. In order to have photo excitation, the energy of radiation (hνν) must be greater than energy band gap (E_{g} ), i.e. hνν > E_{g} Therefore , the semiconductor with energy band gap about 1.5 eV or lower and with higher absorption coefficient, is likely to give better solar conversion efficiency.
The energy band gap for Si is about 1.1 eV, while for GaAs, it is about 1.43 eV. The gas GaAs is better inspite of its higher band gap than Si because it absorbs relatively more energy from the incident solar radiations being of relatively higher absorption coefficient  A solar cell is based on the photovoltaic effect i.e. to convert light directly into electrical energy.
When light of frequency, νν such that hνν > E_{g} (band gap) is incident on junction, then electronhole pair liberated in the depletion region drifts under the influence of potential barrier. The gathering of these charge carriers make ptype as positive electrode and ntype as negative electrode and hence, generating photovoltage across solar cell. When an external load is connected as shown in
the Fig. a photocurrent I_{L} flows through the load.
OR
 In this case, the pside is at 0V, whereas the nside is at +5V. As, V_{p} < V_{n }, hence the diode is reverse biased.
 A rectifier which rectifies both halves of each a.c. input cycle is called a full wave rectifier.
The circuit arrangement is shown in the figure.
Suppose the input voltage to A with respect to the centre tap at any instant is positive. It is clear that, at that instant, voltage at B being out of phase will be negative. So, diode D_{1} gets forward biased and conducts (while D_{2} being reverse biased is not conducting). Hence, during this positive half cycle we get an output current (and a output voltage across the load resistor R_{L}). In the course of the ac cycle when the voltage at A becomes negative with respect to centre tap, the voltage at B would be positive. In this part of the cycle diode D_{1} would not conduct but diode D_{2} would, giving an output current and output voltage (across R_{L}) during the negative half cycle of the input ac. Thus, we get output voltage during both the positive as well as the negative half of the cycle.
The inputoutput waveforms are shown in the figure.
 The energy for the maximum intensity of the solar radiation is nearly 1 5 eV. In order to have photo excitation, the energy of radiation (hνν) must be greater than energy band gap (E_{g} ), i.e. hνν > E_{g} Therefore , the semiconductor with energy band gap about 1.5 eV or lower and with higher absorption coefficient, is likely to give better solar conversion efficiency.

 Total initial energy,
E=Q202C=10−2×10−22×50×10−6E=Q022C=10−2×10−22×50×10−6 = 1 J
This energy shall remain conserved in the absence of resistance.  Angular frequency, ω=1LC√ω=1LC
=1(20×10−3×50×10−6)1/2=1(20×10−3×50×10−6)1/2
= 10^{3} rads^{1}
Thus,f=1032π=159HzThus,f=1032π=159Hz  Q=Q0cosωtQ=Q0cosωt
Or Q=Q0cos2πTtQ=Q0cos2πTt, where T=1f=1159sT=1f=1159s = 6.3 ms
Energy stored is completely electrical at t = 0, T/2, 3T/2 . . .
Electrical energy is zero i.e. energy stored is completely magnetic at
t=T4,3T4,5T4,...t=T4,3T4,5T4,…  At t=T8,3T8,5T8,...t=T8,3T8,5T8,…, the total energy is shared equally between the inductor and the capacitor. As,∵Q=Q0cosωT8=Q0cosπ4=Q02√∵Q=Q0cosωT8=Q0cosπ4=Q02
∴∴ Electrical energy =Q22C=12Q202C=Q22C=12Q022C, which is half of the total energy.  R damps out the LC oscillations eventually. The whole of the initial energy 1.0 J is eventually dissipated as heat.
OR
V=V0sin(1000t+ϕ)⇒ω=1000HzV=V0sin(1000t+ϕ)⇒ω=1000Hz
R=400Ω,C=2μF,L=100mHR=400Ω,C=2μF,L=100mH
Capacitive reactance, Xc=1ωCXc=1ωC
⇒XC=11000×2×10−6⇒XC=11000×2×10−6
⇒Xc=1032⇒Xc=500Ω⇒Xc=1032⇒Xc=500Ω
Inductive reactance, XL=ωLXL=ωL
⇒XL=1000×100×10−3⇒XL=100Ω⇒XL=1000×100×10−3⇒XL=100Ω
So, Xc>XLXc>XL
⇒tanϕ⇒tanϕ is negative.
Hence, the voltage lags behind the current by a phase angle ϕϕ .
Phase difference, tanϕϕ = =XL−XCR=XL−XCR
tanϕ=100−500400⇒tanϕ=−400400,tanϕ=−1tanϕ=100−500400⇒tanϕ=−400400,tanϕ=−1
⇒tanϕ=−tan(π4)⇒ϕ=−π4⇒tanϕ=−tan(π4)⇒ϕ=−π4
This is the required value of the phase difference between the current and the voltage in the given series LCR circuit. Suppose, new capacitance of the circuit is C’. Thus, to have power factor unity
cosϕ′=1=RR2+(XL−X′C)2√cosϕ′=1=RR2+(XL−XC′)2
⇒R2=R2+(XL−X′C)2⇒R2=R2+(XL−XC′)2
⇒XL=X′C=1ωC′ or ωL=1ωC′⇒XL=XC′=1ωC′ or ωL=1ωC′
⇒ω2=1LC′ or (1000)2=1LC′(∵ω=1000)⇒ω2=1LC′ or (1000)2=1LC′(∵ω=1000)
⇒C′=1L×106=1100×10−3×106⇒C′=1L×106=1100×10−3×106
=10106=1105=10−5=10106=1105=10−5
⇒C′=10−5F=10×10−6F=10μF⇒C′=10−5F=10×10−6F=10μF
As, C’ > C, hence, we have to add an additional capacitor of capacitance = 10μF−2μF=8μF10μF−2μF=8μF in parallel with previous capacitor.
 Total initial energy,

 A single narrow slit is illuminated by a monochromatic source of light. The diffraction pattern is obtained on the screen placed in front of the slits. There is a central bright region called as central maximum. All the waves reaching this region are in phase hence the intensity is maximum. On both side of central maximum, there are alternate dark and bright regions, the intensity becoming weaker away from the center. The intensity at any point P on the screen depends on the path difference between the waves arising from different parts of the wavefront at the slit.
Diffraction of light at a single slit A parallel beam of light with a plane wavefront WW’ is made to fall on a single slit AB. As width of the slit AB = dis of the order of wavelength of light, therefore, diffraction occurs on passing through the slit.
The wavelets from the single wavefront reach the centre O on the screen in same phase and hence, interfere constructively to give central maximum (bright fringe).
The diffraction pattern obtained on the screen consists of a central bright band having alternate dark and weak bright band of decreasing intensity on both sides.
Consider a point P on the screen at which wavelets travelling in a direction making an angle θθ with CO are brought to focus by the lens. The wavelets from points A and B will have a path difference equal to BN.
From the right angled ΔANBΔANB, we have BN = AB sinθθ or BN = d sinθθ.
To establish the condition for secondary minima, the slit is divided into 2,4,6… equal parts such that corresponding wavelets from parts such that corresponding wavelets from successive regions interfere with path difference λ/2λ/2
or for nth secondary minlmum.the slit can be divided into 2n equal parts. Hence, for nth secondary minimum, path difference= =dsinθn=nλ=dsinθn=nλ.
or sinθn=nλd(n=1,2,3,…)sinθn=nλd(n=1,2,3,…)
To establish the condition for secondary maxima, the slit is divided into 3,5,7… equal parts such that corresponding wavelets from alternate regions interfere with path difference of A./2 or for nth secondary maximum, the slit can be divided into (2n+ 1)equal parts.
Hence, for nth secondary maximum
dsinθn=(2n+1)λ2dsinθn=(2n+1)λ2 (n = 1, 2, 3,…)  For λ1=590mmλ1=590mm
Location of 1 maxima y1=(2n+1)Dλ12dy1=(2n+1)Dλ12d
If n=1⇒y1=3Dλ12dn=1⇒y1=3Dλ12d
For λ2=596nmλ2=596nm
Location of III maxima
y2=(2n+1)Dλ22dy2=(2n+1)Dλ22d, if n = 1
⇒y2=3Dλ22d⇒y2=3Dλ22d
∴∴ Path difference =y2−y1=3D2d(λ2−λ1)=y2−y1=3D2d(λ2−λ1)
=3×1.52×2×10−6(596−590)×10−9=3×1.52×2×10−6(596−590)×10−9
=6.75×10−3m=6.75×10−3m
OR
Suppose S_{1} and S_{2} are two fine slits, a small distance d apart. They are illuminated by a strong source S of monochromatic light of wavelength λλ. MN is a screen at a distance D from the slits.
Consider a point P at a distance y from 0, the centre of the screen.
The path difference between two waves arriving at point Pis equal to S_{2}P – S_{1}P.
Now, (S_{2}P)^{2} (S_{1}P)^{2}
=[D2+(y+d2)2]−[D2+(y−d2)2]=2yd=[D2+(y+d2)2]−[D2+(y−d2)2]=2yd
Thus, S2P−S1P=2ydS2P+S1PS2P−S1P=2ydS2P+S1P
But S2P+S1P≈2DS2P+S1P≈2D∴S2P−S1P≈dyD∴S2P−S1P≈dyD For constructive interference (Bright fringes)
Path difference =dyD=nλ=dyD=nλ , where,
n = 0, 1, 2, 3,……
∴y=nDλd∴y=nDλd [∵∵ n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ….]  For destructive interference (Dark fringes)
Path difference =dyD=(2n−1)λ2=dyD=(2n−1)λ2
The distribution of intensity in Young’s double slit experiment is as shown below
 A single narrow slit is illuminated by a monochromatic source of light. The diffraction pattern is obtained on the screen placed in front of the slits. There is a central bright region called as central maximum. All the waves reaching this region are in phase hence the intensity is maximum. On both side of central maximum, there are alternate dark and bright regions, the intensity becoming weaker away from the center. The intensity at any point P on the screen depends on the path difference between the waves arising from different parts of the wavefront at the slit.