CBSE Class 12 Political Science

CBSE Class 12 Political Science
Sample Papers 01 (2020-21)

Maximum Marks: 80
Time Allowed: 3 hours</b

General Instructions:

  1. All Questions are Compulsory.
  2. Section A has 16 Objective Type Questions of 1 mark each.
  3. Section B has 2 passage –based questions 17 and 18 having Multiple Choice Questions of 1 mark each.
  4. Question numbers 19-22 carries 2 marks each. Answer to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
  5. Question numbers 23-27 carries 4 marks each. Answer to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  6. Question numbers 28-29 pertain to map and cartoon questions carrying 5 marks each to be answered accordingly.
  7. Question numbers 30-32 carries 6 marks each. Answer to these questions should not exceed 150words each.

  1. Section A
  2. Which of the following speech was given at midnight on 14-15 August 1947 by J.L.Nehru?
    1. Freedom from Slavery
    2. Awoke and Arise
    3. Satyavev Jayate
    4. Tryst with Destiny
  3. When did the present ruling party the Bhartiya Janata Party was formed?
    1. 1980
    2. 1961
    3. 1979
    4. 1951
  4. Which one of the following is Arenas of the Cold War?
    1. Ghana
    2. Berlin
    3. China
    4. India
  5. Which of the following institutions play a role in determining economic policies across the world?
    1. The EU and the WTO
    2. UNO and the WTO
    3. The IMF and the WTO
    4. The ASEAN and the IMF
  6. To which neighbors, India has sent the Indian Peace Keeping Force?
    1. Sri Lanka
    2. Bangladesh
    3. Maldives
    4. Nepal
  7. Who was the successor of the USSR?
    1. Belarus
    2. Ukraine
    3. Russia
    4. the USA
  8. Which of the following factors has not contributed to Pakistan’s failure in building a stable democracy?
    1. Pakistan’s clergy and landowning aristocracy
    2. Lack of genuine international support
    3. The social dominance of the military
    4. The interference of China in the internal politics of Pakistan
  9. When did The USA gave diplomatic recognition to China?
    1. February 1979
    2. January 1971
    3. January 1979
    4. January 1977
  10. To which of the following category the Bahujan Samaj Party does not derive its confidence?
    1. Religious Minority
    2. Vishva Hindu Parishad
    3. OBCs
    4. ST
  11. Who was the president of Pakistan during Tashkent agreement in 1966?
    1. Md. Ayub Khan
    2. MD. Ali Zinna
    3. Lal Bahadur Shastri
    4. Julfikar Ali Bhutto
  12. Which one of the following is not a cause of the Cold War?
    1. The establishment of NAM
    2. The Cuban Missile Crisis
    3. The emergence of the USA and the USSR as two superpowers rival to each other
    4. The Ideological conflict between the USA and USSR
  13. Which of the following did not happen during the emergency?
    1. Press censorship
    2. Ten-Point programme
    3. Agitations came to an end
    4. Twenty-Point programme
  14. Which among the following statements most closely explain the meaning of the Marshall Plan?
    1. The US interventionist policy to the politics of Southeast Asia
    2. The threat to the dominance of the US dollar by the Euro
    3. The financial help to Europe by the US
    4. The counter policy against China by the US
  15. Which of the following chose to closed down instead of submitting to Censorship?
    1. The Mainstream
    2. The Statesman
    3. The Guardian
    4. Indian Express
  16. Privatization and liberalisation are two elements of the ________.
    1. Globalisation
    2. Socialism
    3. Communism
    4. Marxism

    OR

    Which of the statements are TRUE about globalisation?

    1. Globalisation is the same thing as westernisation
    2. Globalisation is a multi-dimensional phenomenon
    3. Globalisation is purely an economic phenomenon
    4. Globalisation began in 1991
  17. Which among the following statements best describe the International Monetary Fund?
    1. The successor to the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs
    2. An international Organisation which sets the rules for global trade
    3. Institutions that look into research and advocacy on the open economy
    4. An organization that oversees financial institutions that act at the international level
  18. Section B
  19. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
    After the end of the bipolar structure of world politics in the early 1990s, it became clear that alternative centres of political and economic power could limit America’s dominance. Thus, in Europe, the European Union (EU) and, in Asia, the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), have emerged as forces to reckon with. While evolving regional solutions to their historical enmities and weaknesses, both the EU and the ASEAN have developed alternative institutions and conventions that build a more peaceful and cooperative regional order and have transformed the countries in the region into prosperous economies. The economic rise of China has made a dramatic impact on world politics. The strength of its economy, together with other factors such as population, landmass, resources, regional location and political influence, adds to its power in significant ways. Look at some of these emerging alternative centres of power and assess their possible role in the future.

    1. Which of the following is not a member of ASEAN?
      1. Singapore
      2. Laos
      3. Myanmar
      4. India
    2. Which of the following is the centre of an alternative of power in Asia?
      1. SCO
      2. New Development Bank
      3. ASEAN
      4. North Korea
    3. Which of the following is the centre of an alternative of power in Europe?
      1. UNO
      2. EU
      3. China
      4. ASEAN
    4. When the world has witnessed the end of the bipolar structure?
      1. 1940s
      2. 1960s
      3. 1990s
      4. 1980s
  20. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
    India did not follow any of the two known paths to development – it did not accept the capitalist model of development in which development was left entirely to the private sector, nor did it follow the socialist model in which private property was abolished and all the production was controlled by the state. Elements from both these models were taken and mixed together in India. That is why it was described as ‘mixed economy’. A mixed model like this was open to criticism from both the left and the right. Astride the Public Sector are Central Ministers Lal Bahadur Shastri, Ajit Prasad Jain, Kailash Nath Katju, Jagjivan Ram, T. T. Krishnamachari, Swaran Singh, Gulzari Lal Nanda, and B. V. Keskar. Poverty did not decline substantially during this period; even when the proportion of the poor reduced, their numbers kept going up.

    1. Which countries elements have taken and mixed together in India?
      1. The USA and USSR
      2. France and Germany
      3. Germany and Japan
      4. Japan and USSR
    2. Which of the following were supporters of priority given to the Public sector?
      1. Jagjivan Ram
      2. Swaran Singh
      3. B. V. Keskar
      4. All of the Above
    3. Which of the following is an author for the book ‘Economy of Permanence’?
      1. Kailash Nath Katju
      2. T. T. Krishnamachari
      3. J. C. Kumarappa
      4. Gulzari Lal Nanda
    4. Who was the Chairperson of the planning commission?
      1. Lal Bahadur Shastri
      2. Jawaharlal Nehru
      3. K. N. Raj
      4. J. C. Kumarappa
  21. Section C
  22. Analyse any two effects of the implementation of the recommendations of the Mandal Commission in 1990.
  23. What was Marshall Plan? How did it pave the way for the formation of OEEC (Organisation of European Economic Cooperation)?
  24. Write a short note on Hindutva.
  25. Describe outcomes of the Naxalite movement.ORHow far do you agree that the government had misused its emergency powers during 1975-77? Explain.
  26. Section D
  27. What is meant by SAARC? How can peace and cooperation be enhanced through it?
  28. Describe the role of the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, in formulating and implementing the foreign policy of India.
  29. How is Non-Alignment different from ‘neutrality’ or ‘equi-distance’?ORIn what manner Gorbachev’s reform policy was protested? Who took the command during these events?
  30. Explain briefly the impact of the 1977 elections.ORIn what way did the imposition of Emergency affect the party system in India? Elaborate your answer with examples.
  31. Does globalisation lead to ‘cultural homogenisation’ or ‘cultural heterogenization’ or both? Justify.
  32. Section E
  33. In the given outline political map of India five states have been marked as (A) (B) (C) (D) and (E). Identify these states on the basis of the information given below and write their correct names in your answer book, along with their respective serial number of the information used and the concerned alphabets as per the following format:-
    1. The latest state of Indian Union.
    2. A state where an organization of Dalit Panthers was formed.
    3. The state where the movement to hug trees to avoid felling them for sports good began.
    4. The state where the Narmada Sagar dam has been constructed.
    5. The state where the Anandpur Sahib resolution has been signed.
  34. Study the picture given below:
     Questions

    1. What does the cartoon represent?
    2. Who is the person being commented in the cartoon?
    3. What message does the cartoon convey?
  35. Section F
  36. Examine India’s relationship with the former Soviet Union during the Cold War.OR‘India and the USSR enjoyed a special relationship during the Cold War, which led critics to say that India was a part of the Soviet camp.’ Do you agree? Support your answer with any two arguments.
  37. Examine the main reasons responsible for the split in Congress during 1969.ORDescribe in brief how the political transition took place after Nehru.
  38. Give any two examples to show that the federal system adopted by India is a flexible arrangement.ORIt is said that the nation is to a large extent an “ imagined community” held together by common beliefs, history, political aspirations and imaginations. Identify the features that make India a nation.

CBSE Class 12 Political Science
Sample Papers 01 (2020-21)


Solution

  1. Section A
  2. (d) Tryst with Destiny
    Explanation: The first speech of the first Prime Minister of India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru at the hour of midnight on 14-15 August 1947 was known as famous “tryst with destiny” speech while addressing a special session of the Constituent Assembly.
  3. (a) 1980
    Explanation: After the fall of the Janata Party and its break-up, the supporters of erstwhile Jana Sangh formed the Bharatiya Janata Party ( BJP) in 1980.
  4. (b) Berlin
    Explanation: The two superpowers were poised for direct confrontations in Korea (1950 – 53), Berlin (1958 – 62 ), the Congo (the early 1960s), and in several other places such as Vietnam and Afghanistan where great lives were lost.
  5. (c) The IMF and the WTO
    Explanation: A part of the problem has to do with defining economic globalisation itself. The mention of economic globalisation draws our attention immediately to the role of international institutions like the IMF and the WTO and the role they play in determining economic policies across the world.
  6. (a) Sri Lanka
    Explanation: India signed an accord with Sri Lanka and sent troops to stabilize relations between the Sri Lankan and the Tamils LTTE. The presence of Indian troops was not liked by many Sri Lankans and hence in 1989, the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) pulled out of Sri Lanka without attaining its objective.
  7. (c) Russia
    Explanation: Russia became the successor of the USSR after its disintegration. It inherited the Soviet seat in the UN Security Council. Russia accepted all the international treaties and commitments of the Soviet Union.
  8. (d) The interference of China in the internal politics of Pakistan
    Explanation: There were several factors that led to the failure of Pakistan in building a stable democracy including the social dominance of the military, clergy, and landowning aristocracy along with the lack of genuine international support. However, China-Pakistan friendship is a very recent turn of events. Hence it cannot be the factor.
  9. (c) January 1979
    Explanation: Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping adopted the policy of open door. Then aftra America gave deplomatic recognition.
  10. (b) Vishva Hindu Parishad
    Explanation: The BSP, under the Kanshi Ram’s leadership, was envisaged as an organization based on pragmatic politics. It derived confidence from the fact that the Bahujans (SC, ST, OBC, and religious minorities) constituted the majority of the population, and were a formidable political force on the strength of their numbers.
  11. (a) Md. Ayub Khan
    Explanation: He was the president of Pakistan during Indo-pak war 1965.
  12. (a) The establishment of NAM
    Explanation: The Cuban Missile Crisis was a high point of what came to be known as the Cold War. The Cold War was not simply a matter of power rivalries, of military alliances, and of the Balance of Power. These were accompanied by a real ideological conflict as well. The Cold War was an outcome of the emergence of the US and USSR as two superpowers rival to each other. To reduce the tension due to the Cold War, NAM had played an important role.
  13. (b) Ten-Point programme
    Explanation: At the AICC meet, Indiraji unveiled her Ten-Point program seeking social control of banking institutions; nationalization of general insurance, etc. in June 1967.
  14. (c) The financial help to Europe by the US
    Explanation: Under the ‘Marshall Plan’ the USA provided financial help to revive the European economy. America extended massive financial help for reviving Europe’s economy under the Marshall plan.
  15. (a) The Mainstream
    Explanation: Newspapers like the Indian Express and the Statesman protested against censorship by leaving blank spaces where news items had been censored. Magazines like the Seminar and the Mainstream chose to close down rather than submit to censorship.
  16. (a) Globalisation
    Explanation: Globalisation follows the principle of liberalisation as well as privatization.OR(b) Globalisation is a multi-dimensional phenomenon
    Explanation: Globalisation refers to integration of an economy with the other countries based on interdependence. It is a multidimensional concept having political, economic, cultural manifestations. It is the process of exchange of ideas, capital commodities and people.
  17. (d) An organization that oversees financial institutions that act at the international level
    Explanation: The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organisation that looks upon international financial institutions and regulations. It has 189 member countries.
  18. Section B
    1. (d) India
    2. (c) ASEAN
    3. (b) EU
    4. (c) 1990s
    1. (a) The USA and USSR
    2. (d) All of the Above
    3. (c) J. C. Kumarappa
    4. (b) Jawaharlal Nehru
  19. Section C
  20. The two effects of the implementation of the recommendations of the Mandal Commission in 1990 were as:
    1. Opportunities for OBCs in education and employment. Recommended 27% of seats in educational institutions and government jobs for these groups.
    2. Power-sharing by OBCs.
  21. Marshall Plan was a plan under Mr George C Marshall, US Secretary. After 1945 America extended massive financial help for reviving Europe’s economy under what came to be known as “Marshall Plan”. The US also created a new collective security structure under NATO. Under Marshall Plan, the Organisation for European Economics Cooperation(OEEC) was established in 1948, to channel aid to the West European states. It became a forum where the Western European states began to cooperate on trade and economic issues.
    1. Hindutva literally means ‘Hinduness’, is the predominant form of Hindu nationalism in India.
    2. V. D. Savarkar, its originator, defined it as the basis of Indian or Hindu nationhood and brotherhood.
    3. Believers of ‘Hindutva’ argue that a strong nation can be built only on the basis of a strong and united national culture and in the case of India the Hindu culture alone can provide this base and support.
    4. It was championed by the Hindu nationalist volunteer organization, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP) and the Hindu Sena.
  22. The outcomes of the Naxalite movement are:
    1. Naxalite movements used force to snatch land from the rich landowners and give it to the poor and the landless.
    2. The movement gave security of tenure or their share in produce, payment of fair wages etc.
    3. It challenged government system.

    OR

    No, the government did not misuse its ‘Emergency Powers’ during 1975-77. The government said that it wanted to use the Emergency to bring law and order, to restore efficiency, and above all, implement the pro-poor welfare programmes. The government led by Indira Gandhi announced a twenty point programme and declared its determination to implement this programme. It included land reforms, land redistribution, review of agricultural wages, workers’ participation in management eradication of bonded labour etc.

  23. Section D
  24. SAARC stands for South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation for mutual trust and understanding among states of South Asia. Role of SAARC are as:
    • SAARC is a regional initiative by South Asian states to evolve cooperation through mutlilateral means since 1985 onwards.
    • It consists of seven members to encourage mutual harmony, cooperation and friendly relationship, and understanding.
    • SAARC members signed South Asian Free Trade Agreement which promised the formation of a free trade zone for whole of South Asia.
    • It has projected on economic development of its member states to reduce their dependencies on the non-regional powers.
  25. The role of the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, in formulating and implementing the foreign policy of India were as:
    1. He advocated and followed the policy of Non-alignment.
    2. His foreign policy was for preserving the hard-earned sovereignty of India and promote rapid economic development hence required help from both the blocs.
    3. He wants to achieve these objectives through the strategy of non-alignment.
    4. He was against to join any alliance.
  26. NAM provided a third option or an alternative to bipolarity. NAM was different from ‘neutrality’ and ‘equi-distant’ in the following ways:
    1. Newly decolonized countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America used NAM as a platform to raise their voice.
    2. NAM is the policy of staying away from alliances. Non alignment is not isolationism because isolationism means remaining away from world affairs. NAM sought active involvement in world affairs.
    3. India, played an active role in mediating between the two rival alliances. Their positive attributes were the unity they forged between themselves, and they resolve to maintain distance from superpowers despite the attempt by the two superpowers to bring them into their alliance.
    4. Non-alignment is also not neutrality because neutrality refers to a policy of staying out of war. States do not get involved in wars and do not hold any position on the morality of a war. Moreover, non-aligned states,including India,were actually involved in wars for various reasons.

    OR

    Gorbachev’s reform policy was protested in the following manner:

    1. The East European countries which were the part of the Soviet Bloc, started to protest against their own Government and Soviet control.
    2. Boris Yeltsin took the command during these events as he got popular support of people in him and began to shake of centralized control.
    3. Power began to shift from center to the republics which declared themselves independent.
    4. In December 1991, under the leadership of Boris Yeltsin Russia, Ukraine and Baltics declared themselves as sovereign states.
    5. Mikhail Gorbachev was house arrested along with his family.
    6. Gorbachev was blamed for the critical condition of USSR.
    7. Supremacy of Communist Party was opposed throughout the Country.
  27. The general elections to the Lok Sabha in 1977 marked the beginning of a new era in the political system of India. The most important impact of 1977 election was the complete rout of the Congress. In the elections of 1977, Congress could manage to capture only 154 seats as against 352 seats captured by it in the 1971 election. Even Mrs. Indira Gandhi was defeated in the elections. Another important impact was the emergence of the Janata Party, which secured 272 seats in the Lok Sabha. In the North, it was a massive electoral wave against the Congress. The Congress lost in every constituency in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, and Punjab and could win only one seat each in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Janata Party secured maximum seats whereas in the South Janata Party was rejected and voted for the Congress. This sharp division of the North and South was a new phenomenon. Caste, religion, regionalism etc. did not play an effective role in these elections.ORThe imposition of Emergency affected the party system in India as follows:
    • It brought the opposition together to form a new party i.e. the Janata Party.
    • Its formation ensured that non-Congress votes would not be divided. This strengthened the idea of non-Congressism. This factor played a major role in the elections of 1977 as the Congress could win only 154 seats in the Lok Sabha. Its share of popular votes fell to less than 35 percent. The Janata Party and its allies won 330 out of the 542 seats in the Lok Sabha; Janata Party itself won 295 seats and thus enjoyed a clear majority.
  28. Globalisation leads to both:
    1. Cultural homogenisation is an aspect of cultural globalisation, the same process generates the opposite effect. It leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive. It prompts each culture to dominate over other culture resulting in heterogenisation.
    2. Globalisation leads to the rise of a uniform culture known as cultural homogenisation. In the name of global culture, it is just the imposition of western culture on the rest of the world.
    3. The differences among powers remain the same despite the exchange of cultures. Hence, it may be said that cultural exchange is only one of many processes.
  29. Section E
  30. i Telangana B
    ii Maharashtra D
    iii Uttarakhand E
    iv Gujarat A
    v Punjab C
    1. The cartoon represents role of the United Nations on attack on Lebanan by Israeli forces.
    2. The United Nations Secretary General is the person being commented in the cartoon.
    3. The cartoon conveys message on relevance of the UN as immediate follow-up was not there by Israeli forces despite passing a resolution from the UN.
  31. Section F
  32. India and the former Soviet Union enjoyed a cordial relationship during the Cold War. The relation between the two was a multi-dimensional relationship
    1. Economic relation: During the Cold Era, India’s public sector companies were assisted by the Soviet Union. It gave aid and technical assistance for steel plants like Bhilai, Bokaro, Visakhapatnam as well as machinery plants like Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited etc. Apart from this, the Soviet Union accepted the Indian currency for trade when India was short of foreign exchange. The Soviet Union helped India in the construction of plants to manufacture heavy equipment and machinery, steel plants, Power plants, plants to produce precision instruments and machine tools, Petroleum extraction and refining facilities. In this way, USSR contributed heavily to India’s industrial development.
    2. Political relation: On the political front, the Soviet Union has supported India in UN over the Kashmir issue. India got support from the Soviet Union during major conflicts especially during the war with Pakistan in 1971. The Soviet Union on the other hand also got indirect support from India for its foreign policy.
    3. Defense relation: India received its military hardware from the Soviet Union when other countries were willing to part with military technologies.
    4. Culture: In the Soviet Union, Hindi films and Indian culture were very popular. This has been proved as many prominent Indian writers and artists paid a visit to the USSR.
    5. Party to party relationship: The Soviet government never pressurized India to modify its political system or the socio-economic system, though they had “Party to party” friendly relations with Indian leftist groups.

    OR

    Yes, the special relationship between India and USSR reflected this.
    First, India’s Non-Alignment was said to be ‘unprincipled’. In the name of pursuing its national interest. India, it was said, often refused to take a firm stand on crucial international issues. Many political thinkers suspected about the intention of India about its role in Non-Alignment Movement.
    Second, it is suggested that India was inconsistent and took contradictory postures. Having criticized others for joining alliances, India signed the Treaty of Friendship in August 1971 with the USSR for 20 years. This step was seen as a contradiction to India’s foreign policy.
    This was regarded, particularly by outside observers, as virtually joining the Soviet alliance system. However, the Indian Government’s view was that India needed diplomatic and possibly military support during the Bangladesh crisis. Even the attacks from China (in 1962) and Pakistan (in 1965) forced India to take firm action about its foreign policy and modify it accordingly, and that in any case, the treaty did not stop India from having good relations with other countries including the US.

  33. The formal split in Congress took place in 1969 on the issue of nomination of the candidate during presidential elections:
    1. Despite, Indira Gandhi’s reservations the ‘syndicate’ managed to nominate her long-time opponent and the then speaker of the Lok Sabha, Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, as the official Congress candidate for ensuring the presidential elections.
    2. Indira Gandhi retaliated by encouraging the then Vice President, Mr. V.V. Giri, to file his nomination as an independent candidate.
    3. During the Presidential election, the then Congress President S. Nijalingappa issued a ‘Whip’ asking all Congress MPs, MLAs to vote for N. Sanjeeva Reddy the official candidate of the party.
    4. On the other hand, after silently supporting V.V. Giri, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi openly called for a conscience vote to vote the way they want.
    5. Elections went in favour of V.V. Giri due to this diplomatic effort and N. Sanjeeva Reddy was defeated.
    6. The defeat of N. Sanjeeva Reddy, the formal Congress candidate, formalised the split of the party into two:
    • By November 1969, the Congress group led by the ‘Syndicate’ came to be known as the Congress(Organisation). The Congress(O) is also known as Old Congress.
    • The group led by Indira Gandhi came to be called as the Congress (Requisitionists). The Congress(R) is also known as New Congress.

    Indira Gandhi projected the split as an ideological divide between the socialists and conservatives, between the pro-poor and the pro-rich.OR

    Before his death in May 1964, Nehru’s illness had generated speculation about the question of his succession such as ‘Who after Nehru’ and ‘After Nehru what’? There was a fear that in India too the army may take over and democracy may be a failure. But the ease with which succession after Nehru took place surprised everyone. Lal Bahadur Shastri was unanimously elected leader of the Congress Parliamentary party. Even the ‘Guardian’ newspaper of London appreciated the succession after Nehru. This proved that democracy will stay in India and it has deep roots in the country. Even after the sudden death of Shastri at Tashkent in January 1966, the transition from Shastri to Indira Gandhi was peaceful despite intense competition for leadership between Morarji Desai and Indira Gandhi. This transition proved that democracy had matured in India.

  34. A flexible constitution is one that can be amended by the ordinary process of legislation, without adopting any special procedure for the amendment of constitutional laws, since a flexible constitution makes no distinction between constitutional and ordinary laws.
    1. The supremacy of the Judiciary: In a federal system of Government, the judiciary is given a special place. The Indian Constitution establishes a powerful and independent judiciary in India. It decides disputes between the centre and the states and between two or more states. It interprets the Constitution. The interpretation of the Constitution given by the judiciary is considered as the final and the most authentic. It can declare any law ultra vires if it is not in tune with the provisions of the Constitution.
    2. The supremacy of the Constitution: In a federation, the constitution is held Supreme, i.e. no organ of the Government, executive legislature or judiciary is empowered to work against the Constitution. It is maintained so that the division of powers may be adequately safeguarded. The supremacy of the Constitution has been maintained in India too. The Central and State Government in India has to act in accordance with the Constitution.

    OR

    The features that make India a nation are as given below:

    1. Common beliefs: Indian people have common beliefs. The festivals of Dussehra, Diwali, and Holi etc. are celebrated all over India. The names of festivals may be different from place to place but people have common faith and belief.
    2. Common history: People of India have a common history. Every Indian is proud of its ancient past which was known as the golden age in history. Indian civilisation spread in Jawa, Sumatra, and Cambodia in the ancient times. The ancient emperors like Ashoka conquered the whole of India and established political unity.
    3. Political aspirations: The Indians have been supporters of democratic institutions since ancient times. During the Vedic period, there was ‘sabha’ and ‘Samiti’. There was a republic in Vaishali during the later Vedic period. There were panchayats at the time of the reign of Chandragupta Maurya. Thus, democracy has its roots since ancient times.
    4. One geographical entity: India from the Himalayas to Kanyakumari is one geographical entity. A person who travels in the country does not feel to be in a foreign country. Monsoon is awaited by people all over India. It binds people together.
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