CBSE Class 12 Psychology

CBSE Class- XII Psychology
Sample Question Paper

Time – 3 Hours, Max Marks – 70
General instructions

  • All questions are compulsory and answers should be brief and to the point.
  • Marks for each question are indicated against it.
  • Question No 1- 10 in part A are multiple choice questions carrying 1 mark each. You are expected to answer them as directed.
  • Question No 11-16 in Part B are very short answer questions carriying2 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 30 words.
  • Question No. 17-20 in Part C are short answer type-I questions carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 60 words.
  • Question No. 21-26 in Part D are short answer type-II questions carrying 4 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 100 words.
  • Question No. 27 and 28 in Part E are long answer type questions carrying 6 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 200 words.

Part – A
1. Dipa Karmakar is the first Indian gymnast to qualify for the Rio Olympics 2016. According to psychologists, Dipa would be high on ____intelligence.
a) Spatial
b) Naturalistic
c) Interpersonal
d) Bodily – kinesthetic
Ans. d) Bodily – kinesthetic

2. Mamta is suffering from a rare disease but her mother is refusing to accept the reality. She insists on taking Mamta from one doctor to another hoping to hear that nothing is wrong with her daughter. This is an example of:
a) Projection
b) Reaction Formation
c) Denial
d) Rationalization
Ans. c) Denial

3. Aisha is in the final year of schooling and is highly motivated to excel in the competitive examinations. However, she feels she is short of time and always burdened with work. She finds it difficult to slow down and relax. Identify her personality type.
a) Type A
b) Type C
c) Type B
d) Type D
Ans. a) Type A

4. George’s sympathetic nervous system is engaged in the flight or fight syndrome due to a major stressor in his life. Which stage of general adaptation syndrome is he experiencing?
Ans.
 Alarm Reaction

5. Rahul keeps organizing his room the whole day. This keeps him anxious and distracted in class. Such symptoms are typical of which disorder?
a) Agoraphobia
b) Obsessive compulsive disorder
c) Obsessive behaviour
d) Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Ans. b) Obsessive compulsive disorder

6. During the course of treatment in psychodynamic therapy, the client has resentment, hostility and anger towards the therapist. This is called ____.
Ans. 
negative transference,

7. Even though Ajay’s father has recently bought him a pair of trousers, Ajay is insisting on buying a new pair of a particular brand of jeans that all his classmates are wearing. Ajay’s behavior illustrates____
a) Conformity
b) Competition
c) Obedience
d) Compliance
Ans. a) Conformity

Q 8. Stereotypes are the ____components of a prejudice.
Ans.
 cognitive

Q 9. Aggression that is shown towards a weaker person who is unlikely to react is called ____.
Ans.
 Displacement

Q 10. Authenticity means that your behavioural expressions are inconsistent with what you value and the way you relate to your self image. (True/False)
Ans. 
False


Part – B
11. What does Eysenck consider to be the two most important dimensions of personality?
Ans.
 a. Introversion’s. Extraversion: Introversion involves directing attention on inner experiences, while extraversion relates to focusing attention outward on other people and the environment.
b. Neuroticism vs Emotional-Stability: Neuroticism refers to an individual’s tendency to become upset or emotional, while stability refers to the tendency to remain emotionally constant. Refers to the degree to which people have control over their feelings.

12. How do projective tests provide insight into personality?
Ans.
 Projective tests were developed to assess unconscious motives and feelings. These techniques are based on the assumption that a less structured or unstructured stimulus or situation will allow the individual to project one’s feelings desires and needs on the situation.

13. Identity the unhelpful habits that make us vulnerable to stress.
Ans
. Unhelpful habits of perfectionism, avoidance and procrastination make us vulnerable to stress.

14. How does aversive conditioning help in overcoming maladaptive behavior?
Ans.
 It refers to repeated association of undesired response with an aversive consequence.

15. Explain the effect of noise on the cognitive abilities of human beings.
Ans.
 Systematic research on the effects of noise on human beings shows the following:
a. When the noise comes at intervals, and in an unpredictable way, it is experienced as more disturbing than if the noise is continuously present.
b. When the task being performed is difficult, or requires full concentration, then intense, unpredictable, and uncontrollable noise reduces the level of task performance.
c. When tolerating or switching off the noise is within the control of the person, the number of errors in task performance decreases.

16. Why does the interviewer prepare a ‘schedule’ for the purpose of an interview?
Ans.
 To accomplish an interview, the interviewer prepares a set of questions, also called a schedule, for different domains, or categories s/he wants to cover. To do this, the interviewer must first decide on the domains/categories under which information is to be generated.


Part – C
17. Reena is 5 years old, she cries when she is dropped to school. Explain the disorder and list its symptoms.
Ans.
 Reena has Separation Anxiety disorder, which is an internalizing disorder unique to children.
Its most prominent symptom is excessive anxiety or even panic experienced by children at being separated from their parents. Children with SAD may have difficulty being in a room by themselves, going to school alone, are fearful of entering new situations, and cling to and shadow their parents’ every move. To avoid separation, children with SAD may fuss, scream, throw severe tantrums, or make suicidal gestures.

18. ‘Hearing and listening are not the same’. Justify your answer.
Ans.
 Listening is an important skill and requires a person to be attentive. S/he should be patient, non-judgmental and yet have the capacity to analyze and respond. Listening is a process that involves reception, attention, assignment of meaning, and listener’s response to the message presented. Hearing is a biological activity that involves reception of a message through sensory channels. It is a part of listening.

19. Many societies are prejudiced on the basis of religion and colour. Suggest some strategies to handle such prejudices.
Ans.
 Strategies:
(a) minimizing opportunities for learning prejudices,
(b) changing such attitudes,
(c) de-emphasizing a narrow social identity based on the in-group, and
(d) discouraging the tendency towards self-fulfilling prophecy among the victims of prejudice.
Any three strategies with explanation.

20. ‘Culture of poverty is also a cause of poverty’. Explain.
Ans.
 Poverty is a condition in which there is a lack of necessities of life in the context of unequal distribution of wealth in society. There are various reasons attributed to poverty. One of them is culture of poverty which states that, it is not the individual, but a belief system, a way of life, and values, in which she/he is brought up, that is the cause of poverty. This belief system, called the ‘culture of poverty’, convinces the person that she/he will continue to remain poor, and the belief is carried over from one generation of the poor to the next.


Part – D
21. JP Das’ model of intelligence involves the ‘Interdependent functioning of three neurological systems’. Discuss.
Ans.
 PASS model was developed by J.P. Das, Jack Naglieri and Kirby in 1994. According to this model, intellectual activity involves the interdependent functioning of three neurological systems, called the functional units of the brain. These units are responsible for arousal / attention, simultaneous and successive processing and planning.
Arousal/attention
Simultaneous processing
Successive processing
Planning

22. What is the role of nature and nurture in the development of intelligence?
Ans.
 There is a general consensus among psychologists that intelligence is a product of complex interaction of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture). Heredity can be viewed as something that sets a range within which an individual’s development is actually shaped by the support and opportunities of the environment. Studies have also shown correlation between intelligence of identical twins reared together (.90) , identical twins reared apart (.72)fraternal twins reared together (.60) and siblings reared together (.50)and sibling reared apart (.25). With respect to the role of environment, studies have reported that as children grow in age, their intelligence level tends to move closer to their adoptive parents. Children from disadvantaged homes adopted into families of higher socio-economic status exhibit a large increase in their intelligence scores. There is evidence that environmental deprivation lowers intelligence while rich nutrition, good family background and quality schooling increases intelligence. Intelligence is a product of heredity and environment.

23. Anita regularly abstains from food for religious reasons. Which aspect of the self is she displaying? Suggest the psychological techniques that will help her abstain from food.
Ans.
 Self- control refers to delaying or deferring of gratification of needs.it plays a key role in the fulfillment of long term goals. Anita is able to abstain from food for religious purposes using self- control. The 3 techniques are:
Observation of own behavior
Self Instruction
Self reinforcement:

24. What is coping? Identify the different coping strategies to deal with stress?
Ans.
 Coping is a dynamic situation-specific reaction to stress. It is a set of concrete responses to stressful situations or events that are intended to resolve the problem and reduce stress.
The three coping strategies according to Endler and Parker is given are:
1. Task-oriented Strategy:
2. Emotion-oriented Strategy:
3. Avoidance-oriented Strategy:

OR

Lazarus & Folkman have conceptualized coping as a dynamic process rather than an individual trait.
Emotion-Focused Coping:
Problem-Focused Coping:
A description of each.

25. ‘Rishabh, a 21 year old college student, exhibits an intense fear of fireworks, gunshots, popping balloons etc’. Suggest the most appropriate therapy that could be used to help Rishabh overcome his fear.
Ans.
 Behaviour therapies postulate that psychological distress arises because of faulty behaviour patterns or thought patterns. Systematic desensitization is a behavior therapy technique. Systematic desensitization is a technique introduced by Wolpe for treating phobias or irrational fears. The client is interviewed to elicit fear-provoking situations and together with the client, the therapist prepares a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking stimuli with the least anxiety-provoking stimuli at the bottom of the hierarchy. The therapist relaxes the client and asks the client to think about the least anxiety- provoking situation. The client is asked to stop thinking of the fearful situation if the slightest tension is felt. Over sessions, the client is able to imagine more severe fear provoking situations while maintaining the relaxation. The client gets systematically desensitized to the fear.
It works on the principle of reciprocal inhibition.
Explanation with reference to given example.

26. ‘Performance on specific tasks is influenced by the mere presence of others’. Support this statement with the help of research done in the field of social facilitation.
Ans.
 It was observed that individuals show better performance in the presence of others, than when they are performing the same task alone. For instance, cyclists racing with each other perform well than when they cycle alone. Better performance in the presence of others is because the person experiences arousal, which makes the person react in a more intense manner. The arousal is because the person feels she or he is being evaluated called evaluation apprehension. The nature of the task to be performed also affects the performance in the presence of others. If the others present are also performing the same task, this is called a situation of co-action. In this situation, there is social comparison and competition. In short, task performance can be facilitated and improved, or inhibited and worsened by the presence of others.


Part – E
27. What are somatoform disorders? Elaborate on the different types.
Ans. 
Somatoform disorders are conditions in which there are physical symptoms in the absence of physical disease. The individual has psychological difficulties and complains of physical symptoms for which there are no biological cause. It includes the following:
Pain disorder:
Hypochondriasis:
Somatisation:
Conversion :

OR

What do you understand by the term ‘dissociation’? What are its various forms?
Ans.
 Dissociation can be viewed as severance of the connections between ideas and emotions. It involves feelings of unreality, estrangement, depersonalization and sometimes a loss or shift of identity. It also includes sudden temporary alterations that blot out painful experience. The Types are:
Dissociative amnesia:
Dissociative fugue:
Dissociative identity disorder:
Depersonalization:

28. Why do people join groups? Discuss.
Ans.
 People join groups because these groups satisfy a range of needs. The main reasons for the people to join groups are as follows: –
a) Security:
b) Status:
c) Self-esteem:
d) Satisfaction of one’s psychological and social needs:
e) Goal achievement:
f) Provide knowledge and information:

OR

Differentiate between group think and group polarization. Why does group polarization occur?
Ans.
 Groupthink is characterized by the appearance of consensus or unanimous agreement within a group. Each member believes that all members agree upon a particular decision or a policy No one expresses dissenting opinion because each person here believes that it would undermine the cohesion of the group and he/she would become unpopular. Group polarization states that the decisions taken by the groups are more extreme that what taken by individuals’. (Explain concepts with the help of examples). Group polarization basically occurs due to three basic reasons.

1) in the company of likeminded people, more arguments are more likely to hear newer arguments favoring each ones’ viewpoints.

2) When others are found to favor a particular view point, you feel that this view is validated by the public. This is a sort of bandwagon effect.

3) When you find people having similar views, you likely to perceive them as in-group. You start identifying with the group, begin showing conformity, and as a result your views become strengthened.

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